Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after one year of regular sexual intercourse without the use of birth control.
Pregnancy is the result of a process that has many steps. To get pregnant:
A woman must release an egg from one of her ovaries (ovulation).
The egg must go through a Fallopian tube towards the uterus (womb).
A man’s sperm must join with (fertilize) the egg along the way.
The fertilized egg must attach to the inside of the uterus (implantation).
Most cases of female infertility are caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods. Ovulation problems are often caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormone imbalance problem which can interfere with normal ovulation. Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is another cause of ovulation problems. POI occurs when a woman’s ovaries stop working normally before she is 40. POI is not the same as early menopause. Other causes of fertility problems in women include:
Blocked Fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease or surgery for an ectopic pregnancy
Physical problems with the uterus.
Uterine fibroids, which are non-cancerous tumours from the walls of the uterus.